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Io programming language. Inspired by Self, Smalltalk and LISP.

Project README

The Io Language

Note: This document is intended to be used as a reference for setting up and configuring Io. For a guide on how to use the language itself, please visit the website at http://iolanguage.org/guide/guide.html.

Table of Contents

What is Io?

Io is a dynamic prototype-based programming language in the same realm as Smalltalk and Self. It revolves around the idea of message passing from object to object.

For further information, the programming guide and reference manual can be found in the docs folder.

Example Code

Basic Math

Io> 1 + 1
==> 2

Io> 2 sqrt
==> 1.4142135623730951

Lists

Io> d := List clone append(30, 10, 5, 20)
==> list(30, 10, 5, 20)

Io> d := d sort
==> list(5, 10, 20, 30)

Io> d select (>10)
==> list(20, 30)

Objects

Io> Contact := Object clone
==>  Contact_0x7fbc3bc8a6d0:
  type = "Contact"

Io> Contact name ::= nil
==> nil

Io> Contact address ::= nil
==> nil

Io> Contact city ::= nil
==> nil

Io> holmes := Contact clone setName("Holmes") setAddress("221B Baker St") setCity("London")
==>  Contact_0x7fbc3be2b470:
  address          = "221B Baker St"
  city             = "London"
  name             = "Holmes"

Io> Contact fullAddress := method(list(name, address, city) join("\n"))
==> method(
    list(name, address, city) join("\n")
)

Io> holmes fullAddress
==> Holmes
221B Baker St
London

Installing

From a Package Manager

Io is currently only packaged for OS X. To install it, open a terminal and type:

brew install io

Note that this package may not be as updated as the version from the source repository.

To install via Homebrew on an M1 Mac, first install Homebrew under x86_64, into /usr/local:

arch -x86_64 /bin/bash -c "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Homebrew/install/master/install.sh)"

Then install io with this installation of Homebrew:

arch -x86_64 /usr/local/Homebrew/bin/brew install io

Following that, you can run io under Rosetta 2 with:

arch -x86_64 io

From Source

First, make sure that this repo and all of its submodules have been cloned to your computer by running git clone with the --recursive flag:

git clone --recursive https://github.com/IoLanguage/io.git

Io uses the CMake build system and supports all of the normal flags and features provided by CMake.

In a production environment, pass the flag -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=release to the cmake command to ensure that the C compiler does the proper optimizations. Without this flag, Io is built in debug mode without standard C optimizations.

To install to a specific folder, pass the flag -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/path/to/your/folder/ to the cmake command.

Linux Build Instructions

To prepare the project for building, run the following commands:

cd io/           # To get into the cloned folder
mkdir build      # To contain the CMake data
cd build/
cmake ..         # This populates the build folder with a Makefile and all of the related things necessary to begin building

In a production environment, pass the flag -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=release to the cmake command to ensure that the C compiler does the proper optimizations. Without this flag, Io is built in debug mode without standard C optimizations.

To install to a different folder than /usr/local/bin/, pass the flag -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/path/to/your/folder/ to the cmake command.

To build without Eerie, the Io package manager, pass the flag -DWITHOUT_EERIE=1 to the cmake command.

Once CMake has finished preparing the build environment, ensure you are inside the build folder, and run:

make
sudo make install

Finally, install Eerie, the Io package manager (see Eerie repo for installation options):

export PATH=$PATH:_build/binaries/; . ./install_unix.sh

Io can then be run with the io command and Eerie can be run with the eerie command.

macOS Build Instructions

See the Linux build instructions.

Note: Building Io for arm64-based macOS machines is unsupported. To build and run on an M1 or newer, build Io for x86_64 by adding -DCMAKE_OSX_ARCHITECTURES="x86_64" to your CMake invocation.

Windows Build Instructions

You need CMake or CMake Cygwin (at least v2.8), depending on the building method you choose.

For the make install command, if you are on Windows 7/Vista you will need to run your command prompts as Administrator: right-click on the command prompt launcher->"Run as administrator" or something similar.

You will also need to add <install_drive>:\<install_directory>\bin and <install_drive>:\<install_directory>\lib to your PATH environment variable.

We use this method in our CI, so this should be considered an official/supported method of building on Windows.

  1. cd to your Io root folder

  2. We want to do an out-of-source build, so: mkdir buildroot and cd buildroot

  3. a) cmake -G"MinGW Makefiles" ..

    or

    b) cmake -G"MinGW Makefiles" -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=<install_drive>:/<install_directory> .. (eg: cmake -G"MinGW Makefiles" -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=C:/Io ..)

  4. mingw32-make

  5. mingw32-make install (if you use cmd.exe, you should run it as Administrator)

  6. Install Eerie, the Io package manager (see Eerie repo for installation options): _build\binaries\io_static setup.io.

Building with MinGW

For automatic MinGW install: http://sourceforge.net/projects/mingw/files/Automated%20MinGW%20Installer

For non-automatic MinGW install and detailed instructions refer to: http://www.mingw.org/wiki/InstallationHOWTOforMinGW

  1. cd to your Io root folder

  2. We want to do an out-of-source build, so: mkdir buildroot and cd buildroot

  3. a) cmake -G"MSYS Makefiles" ..

    or

    b) cmake -G"MSYS Makefiles" -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=<install_drive>:/<install_directory> .. (eg: cmake -G"MSYS Makefiles" -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=C:/Io ..)

  4. make

  5. make install

  6. Install Eerie, the Io package manager (see Eerie repo for installation options): ./_build/binaries/io_static setup.io.

Building with MSVC

  1. Install Microsoft Visual C++ 2008 Express (should work with other versions).

  2. Install Microsoft Windows SDK 7.0 (or newer).

  3. Install CMake (v2.8 at least)

  4. Run "Visual Studio 2008 Command Prompt" from the "Microsoft Visual Studio 2008" start menu.

  5. cd to <install_drive>:\Microsoft SDKs\Windows\v7.0\Setup then run: WindowsSdkVer.exe -version:v7.0

  6. Close the command prompt window and run step 4 again

  7. Ensure CMake bin path is in the PATH environment variable (eg: echo %PATH% and see that the folder is there) if not you will have to add it to your PATH.

  8. cd to your Io root folder

  9. We want to do an out-of-source build, so: mkdir buildroot and cd buildroot

  10. a) cmake ..

    or

    b) cmake -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=<install_drive>:\<install_directory> .. (eg: cmake -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=C:\Io ..)

  11. nmake

  12. nmake install

  13. Install Eerie, the Io package manager (see Eerie repo for installation options): ./_build/binaries/io_static setup.io.

Building with Cygwin

Install Cygwin from: http://www.cygwin.com/

  1. cd to your Io root folder

  2. We want to do an out-of-source build, so: mkdir buildroot and cd buildroot

  3. a) cmake ..

    or

    b) cmake -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=<install_drive>:/<install_directory> .. (eg: cmake -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=C:/Io ..)

  4. make

  5. make install

  6. Install Eerie, the Io package manager (see Eerie repo for installation options): ./_build/binaries/io_static setup.io.

Note: If you also have CMake 2.8 for Windows installed (apart from CMake for Cygwin) check your PATH environment variable so you won't be running CMake for Windows instead of Cygwin version.

Running Tests

You should be inside your out-of-source build dir. The vm tests can be run with the command:

io ../libs/iovm/tests/correctness/run.io

Installing Addons

Many of the common features provided by the Io language aren't prepackaged in the Io core. Instead, these features are contained in addons that get loaded when launching the Io VM. In the past, these addons were automatically installed by the build process, but now they must be installed through Eerie, the Io package manager.

Most of these addons are housed under the IoLanguage group on GitHub: https://github.com/IoLanguage.

To install an addon, ensure both Io and Eerie are installed correctly, then run:

eerie install <link to the git repository>

For example, to build and install the Range addon, run the command:

eerie install https://github.com/IoLanguage/Range.git

To ensure that an addon installed correctly, pull up an Io interpreter and type the name of the object provided by the addon. It should load dynamically and automatically into the interpreter session, populating a slot in Lobby Protos Addons.

Open Source Agenda is not affiliated with "Io" Project. README Source: IoLanguage/io
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