Ghost Lang Save

:ghost: A friendly little language for you and me.

Project README

Ghost Lang 👻

A friendly little language for you and me.

Motivation

Ghost is the language I wish we had.

There are so many newer programming languages that have brilliant ideas inside them, but I think they have failed to make them feel familiar to programmers.

Ghost steals as much of its design as possible from other programming languages. If someone else did it really well, why do it any differently? As such most of Ghost won't feel new. If you've used some of these languages before you will probably recognize features of Ghost.

There is no compiler or any tools for Ghost right now, I hope to someday work on some. But for now, this is just an exercise in programming language design.

Syntax

Ghost's syntax should feel light. There are no semicons, comments are a single character (#), syntax avoid too many characters.

But it also avoids having "optional" syntax like optional parenthesis or curly braces. A lot of this encourages a more "vertical" coding style.

Places where syntax could go multiple different ways, I've just picked what seems to be most popular. That way it should feel familiar to lots of developers.

Comments

# inline comments only
# combine to make multiline

Variables

let name = expression

Booleans

let positive = true
let negative = false

Strings

let plain = "hello world"
let interpolated = "hello {target}"
let escapes = "hello \"world\""

let multiline =
  """
  The quick {color} fox           # comment
  {action} over the lazy dog     \# not comment
  """
let multilineWithNewlines =
  """
  This is the first line
  This is the second line\
  This is still the second line
  """
let multilineWithIndentation =
  """
  This is indented by 0 spaces.
    This is indented by 2 spaces.
      This is indented by 4 spaces.
  """

Integers

let integer = 42
let negative = -42
let hex = 0x2A
let octal = 0o52
let binary = 0b101010
let separators = 42_000 # may only be between any two digits
let byte = b'a' # u8 only

Floats

let float = 4.2 # `.` must be between digits (ex: 0.42 or 42.0)
let negative = -4.2
let separators = 4_000.000_002 # may only be between any two digits

Regex

let regex = /^one|^two|^three|^orfour/i # equivalent to below
let regexMultiline = ///
  ^ one   |  # all whitespace
  ^ two   |  # and comments
  ^ three |  # will be ignored
  ^ or four  # to make it readable
///i

Structs

struct Rect {
  x: Int32
  y: Int32
  width: Int32
  height: Int32
}

let rect = Rect {
  x: 10,
  y: 20,
  width: 1
}

Enums

enum Action {
  Reset()
  Increment(amount: Int32 = 1)
  Decrement(amount: Int32 = 1)
}

let reset = Action.Reset()
let increment = Action.Increment()
let increment2 = Action.Increment(2)
let decrement3 = Action.Decrement(amount: 3)

Operators

# Arithmetic
let addition = a + b
let subtraction = a - b
let division = a / b
let multiplication = a * b
let remainder = a % b
let exponentiation = a ** b
let negation = -a

# Comparison
let equality = a == b
let referentialEquality = a === b

let lessThan = a < b
let lessThan2 = a < b < c # equivalent to `a < b && b < c`, except `b` is only evaluated once
let lte = a <= b
let lte2 = a <= b <= c
let lessThan3 = a <= b < c

let greaterThan = a > b
let greaterThan2 = a > b > c
let gte = a >= b
let gte2 = a >= b >= c
let greaterThan3 = a >= b > c

# Logical
let and = expr && expr
let or = expr || expr
let not = !expr

# Grouping
let either = (a && b) || (c && d)

If-Else

if condition {
  doSomethingIfTruthy()
}

if condition {
  doSomethingIfTruthy()
} else {
  doSomethingElse()
}

if condition {
  doSomethingIfTruthy()
} else if condition2 {
  doSomethingElseIf2Truthy()
} else {
  doSomethingElse()
}

let result = if n == 0 {
  "none"
} else if n == 1 {
  "one"
} else {
  "many"
}

Is

if value is Action.Reset {}
if value is Action.Increment(value) { value }
if value is Action.Decrement(amount: value) { value }

Match

let result = match value {
  is true { "true" }
  is false { "false" }
  else { "other" }
}

For-As

for iterable as item {
  if shouldBeSkipped(item) { continue }
  if shouldEndTheLoop(item) { break }
  doSomething()
}

While

while condition {
  onlyRunsIfConditionIsTrue()
  repeatsAsLongAsItRemainsTrue()
}

Loop

loop {
  if condition1 { break }
  if condition2 { continue }
  doSomethingInfinitelyUntilBreak()
}

Functions

fn add(a: Int32, b: Int32) {
  a + b
}
fn subtract(a: Int32, b: Int32) {
  let minuend = a
  let subtrahend = b
  minuend - subtrahend
}

let result = add(400, subtract(42, 22))

Named Params

fn divide(dividend: Int32, divisor: Int32) {
  dividend / divisor
}

# All of these are equivalent:
divide(400, 20)
divide(dividend: 400, divisor: 20)
divide(divisor: 20, dividend: 400)
divide(dividend: 400, 20)
divide(400, divisor: 20)
divide(divisor: 20, 400)

# Compiler Errors: Cannot pass multiple values to the same parameter
divide(dividend: 20, dividend: 400)
divide(20, dividend: 400)

Iterable Functions

fn doubles(iter): Iter<Int32> {
  for iter as value {
    yield value * 2
  }
}

fn invalid() {
  yield 42 # Error
}

Blocks

let value = {
  let a = 42
  let b = 10
  a * b
}

Pipeline

let results =
  | books
  | Iter.filter(^^, fn (book) {
      book.popularity > 0.8
    })
  | Iter.map(^^, fn (book) { Http.request(.get, book.url) })

# Equivalent code without pipelines:
let filtered = Iter.filter(books, fn (book) { book.popularity > 0.8 })
let results = Iter.map(filtered, fn (book) { Http.request(.get, book.url) })

Junk

let _ = "ignore me"
let [_, _, three] = [1, 2, 3]
let {a as _, b as _, ...rest as _} = { a = 1, b = 2, c = 3, d = 4 }

doSomething(fn (_, _, value) {
  value
})

log(_)
# SyntaxError: "Junk" bindings (_) are not valid
# identifiers and cannot be referenced. Give your
# binding a name instead.

Elements (GSX)

let view = OtherComponent(prop, bar: true) {
  let target = "world"
  Text("hello {target}")
  List {
    for items as item {
      Text(item.name)
    }
  }
}

Use

use std/time

Pub

pub let add = fn (a, b) { a + b }
pub let PI = 3.14

Type Syntax

Type Alias

type MyType = Bool

Primitive Types

type T = Empty
type T = Never

type T = Boolean

type T = Int8
type T = Int16
type T = Int32
type T = Int64
type T = Int128
type T = IntSize

type T = Uint8
type T = Uint16
type T = Uint32
type T = Uint64
type T = Uint128
type T = USize

type T = Float32
type T = Float64

Maybe Types

type T = Maybe<Boolean>

Result Types

type T = Result<Boolean>

Function Types

type T = fn (param: String): USize
type T = fn (param: String): Iter<USize> 

Generic Types

type T<T> = Option<T>
type T = fn <T>(param: T): T

Unions

type MyType = Int8 | Int16 | Int32
type MyType =
  | Int8
  | Int16
  | Int32

Types in Syntax

Variables

let value: Boolean = true
let value: Boolean | String = "cool"

Functions

let fn = fn (param1: String, param2: Number) {
  # ...
}

let fn = fn (...rest: Array<String>) {
  # ...
}

let fn = fn (): String {
  "nice"
}

let fn = fn (): Iter<String> iter {
  yield "good"
}
Open Source Agenda is not affiliated with "Ghost Lang" Project. README Source: jamiebuilds/ghost-lang
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