# Castryck Decru SageMath

A SageMath implementation of the Castryck-Decru Key Recovery attack on SIDH

# Castryck-Decru Key Recovery Attack on SIDH

SageMath implementation of An efficient key recovery attack on SIDH, preliminary version, based on supplied Magma code from https://homes.esat.kuleuven.be/~wcastryc/.

Sage version: This code was developed using SageMath 9.5. Certain isogeny functions require SageMath 9.5 and above, so if the code does not run, check your current version with sage --version.

## A Note on Reimplementing the Castryck-Decru Attack

A note A Note on Reimplementing the Castryck-Decru Attack and Lessons Learned for SageMath has been uploaded to eprint. We hope that this gives a good background for the work accomplished in this repo, as well as some more general tips for implementing cryptographic attacks in SageMath.

## Deviation from Castryck-Decru Attack

A recent commit introduces a modification of the Castryck-Decru attack in which only the first $\beta_1$ ternary digits must be guessed. Now, instead of recovering the remaining digits one by one, the secret isogeny is directly calculated from the result of the (2,2)-isogeny chain.

This modification was introduced in #12 Implement direct computation of isogeny once the first splitting is found and was acomplished by Rémy Oudompheng.

A description of the attack is described in: A note on implementing direct isogeny determination in the Castryck-Decru SIKE attack.

Additional derivations appear in how the Glue-and-Split computations can be found, which can be seen in the file richelot_aux.sage in the functions:

• FromProdToJac()
• FromJacToJac()

Thanks again to Rémy Oudompheng for deriving and implementing these faster algorithms.

## Baby Example

During development of the code, we created a weaker parameter set SIKEp64 with $p = 2^{33}\cdot 3^{19} - 1$. This has the benefit of helping debug our implementation while also giving instant gratification of seeing an attack in real time.

Running sage baby_SIDH.sage on a laptop recovers Bob's private key in less than ten seconds.

## Breaking SIDH on a Laptop

~ Running Time SIKEp64 $IKEp217 SIKEp434 SIKEp503 SIKEp610 SIKEp751 Paper Implementation (Magma) - 6 minutes 62 minutes 2h19m 8h15m 20h37m Our implementation (SageMath) 5 seconds 2 minutes 10 minutes 15 minutes 25 minutes 1-2 hours Direct Computation (Oudompheng) 2 seconds 9 seconds 22 seconds 2 minutes 15 minutes 1 hour Note: Especially for the higher NIST levels, a lot of time is spent getting the first digits, and so performance time varies based on whether or not the first few values are 0 (fastest) or 2 (slowest). ### Parameter choice • To run the attack on the baby parameters, run sage baby_SIDH.sage • To run the attack on the Microsoft $IKEp217 challenge, run sage SIKE_challenge.sage
• To run the attack on the parameters submitted to the NIST PQ competition:
• Default: NIST_submission = "SIKEp434". Simply run sage SIKEp434.sage for an attack on SIKEp434.
• Modify line 12: NIST_submission = "SIKEp503" for an attack against SIKEp503
• Modify line 12: NIST_submission = "SIKEp610" for an attack against SIKEp610
• Modify line 12: NIST_submission = "SIKEp751" for an attack against SIKEp751

### Parallelism

You can now run the attack partly in parallel thanks to work by Lorenz Panny.

• To run the attack on all available cores, simply add --parallel to the command line. Example: sage SIKEp434.sage --parallel.
• To choose the number of cores to use, manually change the value of num_cores in any of the attack scripts.
• If someone wants to make a nice CLI please feel free to make a pull request.

Essentially, we can guess the first $\beta_1$ digits in parallel (which has a dramatic improvement for higher level NIST parameters) and then guess both $j=0$ and $j=1$ in parallel rather than serially for the remaining digits. This means we expect an approximate 1.6× speedup for SIKEp434 and even more for higher levels.

Note that this optimization improves latency at the expense of throughput: The overall amount of work is higher, but the attack finishes quicker. Parallelism more fine-grained than simply testing all guesses simultaneously will certainly improve this, but this seems to be much less trivial to implement in SageMath.

## Estimating the running time (Castryck-Decru Attack)

We can estimate an average running time from the expected number of calls to the oracle Does22ChainSplit().

• For the first $\beta_1$ digits, we have to run at most $3^{\beta_1}$ calls to Does22ChainSplit() and half this on average
• For the remaining $b - \beta_1$ digits we will call Does22ChainSplit() once when $j = 0$ and twice when $j = 1,2$. We can then expect on average to call the oracle once a third of the time and twice for the rest
• Expressing the cost of a single call as $c$ we can estimate the total cost as:

$$\textsf{Cost} = c \cdot \frac{3^{\beta_1}}{2} + c \cdot \frac{(b - \beta_1)}{3} + 2c \cdot \frac{2(b - \beta_1)}{3}$$

$$\textsf{Cost} = c \left(\frac{3^{\beta_1}}{2} + \frac{5(b - \beta_1)}{3} \right)$$

$c$ $\beta_1$ Cost
SIKEp64 0.2s 2 6.5 seconds
$IKEp217 1s 2 2 minutes SIKEp434 3.4s 2 13 minutes SIKEp503 4.5s 4 22 minutes SIKEp610 6s 5 43 minutes SIKEp751 8.4s 6 1.75 hours Where$c$has been estimated using a MacBook Pro using a Intel Core i7 CPU @ 2.6 GHz. Note as$c\$ was benchmarked for the first oracle calls, these are over-estimates, as the oracle calls are faster as more digits are collected.

## Estimating the running time (Oudompheng Modification)

Coming soon...


## Speeding SageMath up using a cache

There is a SageMath performance issue with the group law for the Jacobian of a hyperelliptic curve. When testing equality, the code invokes GF(p^k)(...) for all coefficients. The constructor of the Finite Field includes a primality test for every call, which for larger primes is incredibly expensive.

Rémy managed to avoid this by patching SageMath itself, modifying sage.categories.fields so that the vector space is cached:

from sage.misc.cachefunc import cached_method

@cached_method
def vector_space(self, *args, **kwds):
...


A gentler fix is to use proof.arithmetic(False). This still requires constructing the same vector space again and again, but drops the expensive primality test on every call.

However, the easiest fix for fast performance is thanks to Robin Jadoul. He found that we can achieve a similar result to Rémy's Sage patch with the following in-line monkey patch to our finite field by including the line

Fp2.<i> = GF(p^2, modulus=x^2+1)
type(Fp2).vector_space = sage.misc.cachefunc.cached_method(type(Fp2).vector_space)


This speed up is included by default through loading in the file speedup.sage for each of the attack files.

Included below are some recorded times for running the scripts with and without various patches, before the JacToJac() optimisations which were implemented in pull requests #6-#9.

### Additional Monkey patch for fixing the dimension

A slow call to compute the dimension is made when running HyperElliptic(h).jacobian() which always returns 1. Caching should improve performance up to 20% (not yet fully benchmarked).

# No use calculating the dimension of HyperElliptic every single time
from sage.schemes.projective.projective_subscheme import AlgebraicScheme_subscheme_projective
AlgebraicScheme_subscheme_projective.dimension = lambda self: 1


## Conversion Progress

### Magma files to convert

• Convert uvtable.m
• Convert SIKE_challenge.m
• Convert SIKEp434.m
• Convert richelot_aux.m

### Functions to rewrite in richelot_aux.m:

• FromProdToJac() (Deviation from original code)
• FromJacToJac() (Deviation from original code)
• Does22ChainSplit()
• OddCyclicSumOfSquares() (Code used to generate uvtable, not necessary to reimplement)
• Pushing3Chain()
• Pushing9Chain() (Obselete code, not implemented)

### Main attack to re-write:

• Set small primes and torsion points
• Fill expdata data table from uvtable.sage
• Compute the first bits using Glue-and-split
• Compute longest prolongation of Bob's isogeny
• Compute next digit
• Compute all digits except last 3
• Find last three digits
Open Source Agenda is not affiliated with "Castryck Decru SageMath" Project. README Source: GiacomoPope/Castryck-Decru-SageMath
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