Remainroot Save

A set of shims to allow unmodified programs to run nicely in rootless containers.

Project README


remainroot is a tool that shims out many different functions in order to trick a process into thinking that it is able to change its credentials. This should go without saying, but do not run this code outside of a rootless container. It disables any security that your program gets from dropping privileges, and lies to the program about its current privilege level. This program used to be called "Beware the Leopard". Apart from being a Douglas Adams reference, I wanted people to be aware that this code should be used with fear, not in anger.

All of that being said, here's some more background. Inside a rootless container, certain syscalls will always fail. Some of these failures are caused by the fact that we can only map a single uid and gid inside the user namespace. Others fail because of restrictions by the kernel for security reasons. Furthermore, some syscalls will return results that will confuse some processes by providing seemingly garbage results. remainroot is designed to shim out all of these calls so that an unmodified process can run perfectly fine inside a rootless container.

In the past, remainroot gave users a choice between using an LD_PRELOAD library (which would shim out glibc library calls and had effectively no performance impact) and a ptrace(2)-style shim (which would work with any GNU/Linux binary but had a massive performance impact). Due to a very large number of bugs and design issues in LD_PRELOAD (when it comes to fork(2)ing), remainroot only supports the ptrace(2) shim.


ptrace(2) is a debugging interface inside the Linux kernel, and is used primarily by tools like strace(1) and gdb(1). It is quite a powerful mechanism, but has so many intricacies that make it quite complicated and potentially dangerous to use. In addition, it can make programs quite slow (though remainroot attempts to minimise this by only using PTRACE_SYSCALL and a few other things). In addition, programs that create threads or fully fork are quite complicated to keep track of.

The reason that you might want to use ptrace(2) is because it operates on the syscall layer. This means that all of the potential problems listed in LD_PRELOAD go away, and ptrace is the "right way" of solving the syscall shim problem. However, as I mentioned above, ptrace(2) is incredibly fragile (and has quite a few architecture-specific things embedded inside it).

Since ptrace(2) operates on the syscall layer, we have to emulate the Linux semantics and leave it to glibc to do POSIX emulation with the result of our shims. While this does mean having two layers of lies stacked on top of each other, this is a more complete solution than LD_PRELOAD. In addition, it solves some problems with fork and execve that are not really possible to entirely solve with LD_PRELOAD.


remainroot is licensed under the GNU GPLv3 or later.

remainroot: a shim to trick code to run in a rootless container
Copyright (C) 2016 Aleksa Sarai <[email protected]>

remainroot is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
(at your option) any later version.

remainroot is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with remainroot.  If not, see <>.
Open Source Agenda is not affiliated with "Remainroot" Project. README Source: cyphar/remainroot
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