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Nginx Python Module

Project README

Nginx Python Module


The module allows using Python in nginx both at configuration stage and in runtime.

Compatibility

  • nginx version >= 1.11.5 (HTTP-only version can be compiled with 1.11.2)
  • Python version: 2.7
  • tested on recent Linux, FreeBSD and MacOS

Build

Configuring nginx with the module::

# static module
$ ./configure --add-module=/path/to/nginx-python-module

# dynamic module
$ ./configure --add-dynamic-module=/path/to/nginx-python-module

# sync-only version (no blocking operations substitution)
$ ./configure --add-module=/path/to/nginx-python-module
              --with-cc-opt=-DNGX_PYTHON_SYNC=1

# a specific Python installation can be used by exporting
# the path to python-config prior to configuring
$ export PYTHON_CONFIG=/path/to/python-config

Tests

Like in standard nginx tests, the following environment variables are supported

  • TEST_NGINX_BINARY - path to the nginx binary
  • TEST_NGINX_CATLOG - dump error.log to stderr
  • TEST_NGINX_LEAVE - do not remove test directory

Running tests::

# run all tests
$ python t

# add verbosity with -v, get help with -h
$ python t -v

# run an individual test
$ python t/test_http_basic.py

Directives

Global Scope

  • python - execute Python code in config time
  • python_include - include and execute Python code in config time
  • python_stack_size - set stack size for unblocked code, default is 32k

HTTP Scope

  • python - execute Python code in config time
  • python_include - include and execute Python code in config time
  • python_set - create Python variable (one-line)
  • python_access - set up Python access handler (one-line, blocking ops)
  • python_log - set up Python log handler (one-line)
  • python_content - set up Python location content handler (one-line, blocking ops)

Stream Scope

  • python - execute Python code in config time
  • python_include - include and execute Python code in config time
  • python_set - create Python variable (one-line)
  • python_access - set up Python access handler (one-line, blocking ops)
  • python_preread - set up Python access handler (one-line, blocking ops)
  • python_log - set up Python log handler (one-line)
  • python_content - set up Python server content handler (one-line, blocking ops)

Objects and namespaces

default namespaces

In HTTP default namespace the current HTTP request instance r is available.

  • hi{} - input headers (readonly)
  • ho{} - output headers (read-write)
  • var{} - nginx variables (readonly)
  • arg{} - nginx arguments (readonly)
  • ctx{} - request dictionary (read-write)
  • status - HTTP status (read-write)
  • log(msg, level) - write a message to nginx error log with given level
  • sendHeader() - send HTTP header to client
  • send(data, flags) - send a piece of output body, optional flags are SEND_LAST and SEND_FLUSH

In Stream default namespace the current Stream session instance s is available.

  • buf - preread/UDP buffer (readonly)
  • sock - client socket, I/O is allowed only at content phase
  • var{} - nginx variables (readonly)
  • ctx{} - session dictionary (read-write)
  • log(msg, level) - write a message to nginx error log with given level

ngx namespace

In this namespace, standard constants are available

Standard nginx result codes

  • OK
  • ERROR
  • AGAIN
  • BUSY
  • DONE
  • DECLINED
  • ABORT

Log error levels

  • LOG_EMERG
  • LOG_ALERT
  • LOG_CRIT
  • LOG_ERR
  • LOG_WARN
  • LOG_NOTICE
  • LOG_INFO
  • LOG_DEBUG

Send flags

  • SEND_FLUSH
  • SEND_LAST

Blocking operations

Nginx is a non-blocking server. Using blocking operations while serving client requests, will significantly decrease its performance. The nginx-python-module provides unblocked substitutions for common blocking operations in Python, and makes these changes transparent for user. This means, you can use common blocking Python operations, while their implementations will rely on nginx non-blocking core. The list of classes and functions unblocked by the module:

  • socket.socket class. Unconnected (UDP) sockets, as well as Python SSL socket wrappers are not supported.
  • socket.gethostbyname() and other resolve functions. The resolver directive in the current location is required for these functions.
  • time.sleep() function.

Default Python namespace

For each nginx configuration a new default Python namespace is created. This namespace is shared among all global, HTTP or Stream scopes in configuration time, as well as HTTP requests and Stream sessions in runtime. The namespace can be initialized with the python and python_include directives, which operate at configuration time.

Examples

Remote configuration

Loading the essential part of nginx configuration file from a remote server::

# nginx.conf

python 'import urllib';
python 'urllib.URLopener().retrieve("http://127.0.0.1:8888/nginx.conf", "/tmp/nginx.conf")';

include /tmp/nginx.conf;

Variables

::

# nginx.conf

events {}

http {
    python "import hashlib";

    # md5($arg_foo)
    python_set $md5 "hashlib.md5(r.arg['foo']).hexdigest()";

    server {
        listen 8000;
        location / {
            return 200 $md5;
        }
    }
}

Phase handlers

Dynamic Python module is used in this example::

# nginx.conf

load_module modules/ngx_python_module.so;

events {}

http {
    python_include inc.py;
    python_access "access(r)";

    server {
        listen 8000;
        location / {
            python_content "content(r)";
        }
    }
}


# inc.py

import ngx
import time
import socket

def access(r):
    r.log('access phase', ngx.LOG_INFO)
    r.ctx['code'] = 221

    s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
    s.connect(('127.0.0.1', 8001))
    s.settimeout(2)
    s.send('foo')
    r.ho['X-Out'] = s.recv(10)

def content(r):
    r.status = r.ctx['code']
    r.sendHeader()
    r.send('1234567890');
    r.send('abcdefgefg', ngx.SEND_LAST)

UDP socket

::

# nginx.conf

events {}

http {
    python_include inc.py;
    python_access "access(r)";

    server {
        listen 8000;
        location / {
            root html;
        }
    }
}


# inc.py

import socket

# send each $request via UDP to 127.0.0.1:6000

ds = None

def access(r):
    global ds

    if ds is None:
        ds = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_DGRAM)
        ds.connect(('127.0.0.1', 6000))

    ds.send(r.var['request'])

HTTP request in runtime

::

# nginx.conf

events {}

http {
    python_include inc.py;
    python_access "access(r)";

    server {
        listen 8000;
        location / {
            root html;
        }
    }

    server {
        listen 8001;
        location / {
            return 200 foo;
        }
    }
}


# inc.py

import httplib

def access(r):
    conn = httplib.HTTPConnection("127.0.0.1", 8001)
    conn.request('GET', '/')
    resp = conn.getresponse()

    r.ho['x-status'] = resp.status;
    r.ho['x-reason'] = resp.reason;
    r.ho['x-body'] = resp.read()

Echo server

::

# nginx.conf

events {}

stream {
    python_include inc.py;

    server {
        listen 8000;
        python_content echo(s);
    }
}


# inc.py

def echo(s):
    while True:
        b = s.sock.recv(128)
        if len(b) == 0:
            return
        s.sock.sendall(b)
Open Source Agenda is not affiliated with "Nginx Python Module" Project. README Source: arut/nginx-python-module
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