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Minipipe: a minimal end-to-end data pipeline

Project README


Minipipe: a minimal data pipeline.

The goal of this project is to demonstrate how to build a simple pipeline that accepts data over HTTP, stores it under HDFS (or potentially S3), and makes it queryable from an analytic tool like Spark or Presto. As it's often the case with software, once the right storage mechanism has been chosen the problem becomes considerably easier to solve. Parquet is a columnar storage system optimized for analytic workloads and arguably the lingua franca of the Hadoop ecosystem, which is the reason minipipe is based around it.

###Demo video IMAGE ALT TEXT

Local Deployment

  1. Install minikube. Note that you will need a beefy machine and the use of vmware is highly recommended.

  2. Install kubectl if you don't have it already. You can grab a copy of the binary for Linux or OS X and put it somewhere in your PATH. On OS X you can also install the binary using brew (brew install kubectl).

  3. Fire up a Kubernetes cluster:

    minikube start --cpus=4 --memory=8192 --vm-driver=vmwarefusion
  4. Deploy minipipe:

    ./ --create
  5. Track the deployment progress from the Kubernetes dashboard:

    minikube dashboard
  6. Grab a coffee or something; it might take a while until the cluster is up and running since the first time round many Docker images have to be downloaded.

Example Use Case

  1. Send some data through the REST API. The JSON representation of the data is {"name": "alice"}:

    curl -X POST -H "Content-Type: application/vnd.kafka.avro.v1+json" \
          --data '{"value_schema": "{\"type\": \"record\", \"name\": \"User\", \"fields\": [{\"name\": \"name\", \"type\": \"string\"}]}", 
                   "records": [{"value": {"name": "alice"}}]}' \
          "http://$(minikube ip):32767/topics/connect_test"
  2. Query the data with Presto from redash:

    open http://$(minikube ip):32766

    The username and password for the redash instance are respectively admin & admin.

  3. Schema evolution is supported as well! For example, we can add a new (nullable) field lastname and send a record that reflects the updated schema:

    curl -X POST -H "Content-Type: application/vnd.kafka.avro.v1+json" \
          --data '{"value_schema": "{\"type\": \"record\", \"name\": \"User\", \"fields\": [{\"name\": \"name\", \"type\": \"string\"}, {\"name\": \"lastname\", \"type\": [\"null\", \"string\"], \"default\": null}]}", 
                   "records": [{"value": {"name": "bob", "lastname": {"string": "smith"}}}]}' \
          "http://$(minikube ip):32767/topics/connect_test"

What happens under the hood

  1. The Kubernetes cluster is populated with containers for:
    • ZooKeeper
    • HDFS Namenode
    • HDFS Datanodes
    • Kafka
    • Kafka Schema Registry
    • Kafka Rest Proxy
    • Kafka Connect
    • PostgreSQL
    • Hive Metastore
    • Presto DB
    • Redash

While Docker provides the lifecycle management of containers, Kubernetes takes it to the next level by providing orchestration and managing clusters of containers, which simplifies development and end-to-end testing of a data pipeline. Note that even though this demo runs on a local machine, it's fairly easy to run it on AWS or on Google Cloud.

  1. A payload is sent to the Kafka REST Proxy with an HTTP request, specifying the Kafka topic the message belongs to, i.e connect_test. The content type is set to Avro with JSON encoding (Content-Type: application/vnd.kafka.avro.v1+json). The main benefit of using Avro is that it supports schemas. The payload contains the schema and a set of records that adhere to it.

  2. The proxy talks to the Schema Registry to verify that the payload respects the schema for the topic, if there is one, otherwise it registers a new schema. In case the schema evolved, e.g. a new field was added, the Schema Registry checks that it is backward compatible. Then, the proxy forwards the message to Kafka.

  3. The HDFS Connector reads data from that topic and dumps it on HDFS regularly in Parquet files according to some configurable parameters (e.g. every N records) and partitions (e.g. date). It also creates or updates the schema definition of the corresponding table in the Hive metastore. Note that an equivalent Connector exists for S3 as well.

  4. Presto, or any other tool that can read table definitions from the Hive metastore, can then read the Parquet files from HDFS.

Open Source Agenda is not affiliated with "Minipipe" Project. README Source: vitillo/minipipe
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