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Database migrations. CLI and Golang library.

Project README

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Database migrations written in Go. Use as CLI or import as library.

  • Migrate reads migrations from sources and applies them in correct order to a database.
  • Drivers are "dumb", migrate glues everything together and makes sure the logic is bulletproof. (Keeps the drivers lightweight, too.)
  • Database drivers don't assume things or try to correct user input. When in doubt, fail.

Forked from mattes/migrate


Database drivers run migrations. Add a new database?

Database URLs

Database connection strings are specified via URLs. The URL format is driver dependent but generally has the form: dbdriver://username:password@host:port/dbname?param1=true&param2=false

Any reserved URL characters need to be escaped. Note, the % character also needs to be escaped

Explicitly, the following characters need to be escaped: !, #, $, %, &, ', (, ), *, +, ,, /, :, ;, =, ?, @, [, ]

It's easiest to always run the URL parts of your DB connection URL (e.g. username, password, etc) through an URL encoder. See the example Python snippets below:

$ python3 -c 'import urllib.parse; print(urllib.parse.quote(input("String to encode: "), ""))'
String to encode: FAKEpassword!#$%&'()*+,/:;=?@[]
$ python2 -c 'import urllib; print urllib.quote(raw_input("String to encode: "), "")'
String to encode: FAKEpassword!#$%&'()*+,/:;=?@[]

Migration Sources

Source drivers read migrations from local or remote sources. Add a new source?

CLI usage

  • Simple wrapper around this library.
  • Handles ctrl+c (SIGINT) gracefully.
  • No config search paths, no config files, no magic ENV var injections.

CLI Documentation

Basic usage

$ migrate -source file://path/to/migrations -database postgres://localhost:5432/database up 2

Docker usage

$ docker run -v {{ migration dir }}:/migrations --network host migrate/migrate
    -path=/migrations/ -database postgres://localhost:5432/database up 2

Use in your Go project

  • API is stable and frozen for this release (v3 & v4).
  • Uses Go modules to manage dependencies.
  • To help prevent database corruptions, it supports graceful stops via GracefulStop chan bool.
  • Bring your own logger.
  • Uses io.Reader streams internally for low memory overhead.
  • Thread-safe and no goroutine leaks.

Go Documentation

import (
    _ "github.com/golang-migrate/migrate/v4/database/postgres"
    _ "github.com/golang-migrate/migrate/v4/source/github"

func main() {
    m, err := migrate.New(

Want to use an existing database client?

import (
    _ "github.com/lib/pq"
    _ "github.com/golang-migrate/migrate/v4/source/file"

func main() {
    db, err := sql.Open("postgres", "postgres://localhost:5432/database?sslmode=enable")
    driver, err := postgres.WithInstance(db, &postgres.Config{})
    m, err := migrate.NewWithDatabaseInstance(
        "postgres", driver)
    m.Up() // or m.Step(2) if you want to explicitly set the number of migrations to run

Getting started

Go to getting started


(more tutorials to come)

Migration files

Each migration has an up and down migration. Why?


Best practices: How to write migrations.

Coming from another db migration tool?

Check out migradaptor. Note: migradaptor is not affiliated or supported by this project


Version Supported? Import Notes
master :white_check_mark: import "github.com/golang-migrate/migrate/v4" New features and bug fixes arrive here first
v4 :white_check_mark: import "github.com/golang-migrate/migrate/v4" Used for stable releases
v3 :x: import "github.com/golang-migrate/migrate" (with package manager) or import "gopkg.in/golang-migrate/migrate.v3" (not recommended) DO NOT USE - No longer supported

Development and Contributing

Yes, please! Makefile is your friend, read the development guide.

Also have a look at the FAQ.

Looking for alternatives? https://awesome-go.com/#database.

Open Source Agenda is not affiliated with "Migrate" Project. README Source: golang-migrate/migrate

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