Arximboldi Immer Save

Postmodern immutable and persistent data structures for C++ — value semantics at scale

Project README

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immer is a library of persistent_ and immutable_ data structures written in C++. These enable whole new kinds of architectures for interactive and concurrent programs of striking simplicity, correctness, and performance.

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  • Documentation (Contents_)
  • Code (GitHub_)
  • CppCon'17 Talk: Postmodern Immutable Data Structures (YouTube_, Slides_)
  • ICFP'17 Paper: Persistence for the masses (Preprint_)

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This library has full months of pro bono research and development invested in it. This is just the first step in a long-term vision of making interactive and concurrent C++ programs easier to write. Put your logo here and help this project's long term sustainability by buying a sponsorship package: [email protected]

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.. github does not support the literalinclude directive. This example is copy pasted from example/vector/intro.cpp

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#include <immer/vector.hpp> int main() { const auto v0 = immer::vector{}; const auto v1 = v0.push_back(13); assert(v0.size() == 0 && v1.size() == 1 && v1[0] == 13);

   const auto v2 = v1.set(0, 42);
   assert(v1[0] == 13 && v2[0] == 42);

} ..

For a complete example check Ewig, a simple didactic text-editor <>_ built with this library. You may also wanna check Lager, a Redux-like library <>_ for writting interactive software in C++ using a value-oriented design.


In the last few years, there has been a growing interest in immutable data structures, motivated by the horizontal scaling of our processing power and the ubiquity of highly interactive systems. Languages like Clojure_ and Scala_ provide them by default, and implementations for JavaScript like Mori_ and Immutable.js_ are widely used, specially in combination with modern UI frameworks like React_.

Interactivity Thanks to persistence and structural sharing, new values can be efficiently compared with old ones. This enables simpler ways of reasoning about change that sit at the core of modern interactive systems programming paradigms like reactive programming_.

Concurrency Passing immutable data structures by value does not need to copy any data. In the absence of mutation, data can be safely read from multiple concurrent processes, and enable concurrency patterns like share by communicating_ efficiently.

Parallelism Some recent immutable data structures have interesting properties like :math:O(log(n)) concatenation, which enable new kinds of parallelization algorithms_.

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Idiomatic This library doesn't pretend that it is written in Haskell. It leverages features from recent standards to provide an API that is both efficient and natural for a C++ developer.

Performant You use C++ because you need this. Immer implements state of the art data structures with efficient cache utilization and have been proven production ready in other languages. It also includes our own improvements over that are only possible because of the C++'s ability to abstract over memory layout. We monitor the performance impact of every change by collecting benchmark results_ directly from CI.

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Customizable We leverage templates and policy-based design_ to build data-structures that can be adapted to work efficiently for various purposes and architectures, for example, by choosing among various memory management strategies. This turns immer into a good foundation to provide immutable data structures to higher level languages with a C runtime, like Python_ or Guile_.

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This library is written in C++14 and a compliant compiler is necessary. It is continuously tested_ with Clang 3.8 and GCC 6, but it might work with other compilers and versions.

No external library is necessary and there are no other requirements.

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This is a header only library. You can just copy the immer subfolder somewhere in your include path.

If you are using the Nix package manager_ (we strongly recommend it) you can just::

nix-env -if

Alternatively, you can use CMake_ to install the library in your system once you have manually cloned the repository::

mkdir -p build && cd build
cmake .. && sudo make install

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In order to develop the library, you will need to compile and run the examples, tests and benchmarks. These require some additional tools. The easiest way to install them is by using the Nix package manager_. At the root of the repository just type::


This will download all required dependencies and create an isolated environment in which you can use these dependencies, without polluting your system.

Then you can proceed to generate a development project using CMake_::

mkdir build && cd build
cmake ..

From then on, one may build and run all tests by doing::

make check

In order to build and run all benchmarks when running make check, run cmake again with the option -DCHECK_BENCHMARKS=1. The results of running the benchmarks will be saved to a folder reports/ in the project root.


This software is licensed under the Boost Software License 1.0.

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The full text of the license is can be accessed via this link <>_ and is also included in the LICENSE file of this software package.

Open Source Agenda is not affiliated with "Arximboldi Immer" Project. README Source: arximboldi/immer

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